Causes :: Consequences :: BMI :: Treatment
Obesity: A Disease
Obesity is a serious, chronic disease and not a simple condition. Obesity is defined as an excessively high amount of body fat in relation to lean body mass.
Obesity is an excess of total body fat, which results from caloric intake that exceeds energy usage. A measurement used to assess health risks of obesity is Body Mass Index (BMI).
Click here to find out more about Body Mass Index BMI.
Obesity is the second leading cause of preventable death following smoking.
Causes of Obesity
Obesity could be a combination of the following:
- The genes you inherited from your parents
- How well your body turns food into energy
- Your eating and exercising habits
- Your surroundings
- Psychological factors
Consequences of Obesity
- If you are obese, severely obese, or morbidly obese, you may have:
Major health risks
- Shorter Life Expectancy
- Compared to people of normal weight, obese people have a 50% to 100% increased risk of dying prematurely
- Obese people have more risk for:
- Diabetes (type 2)
- Joint problems (e.g., arthritis)
- High blood pressure
- Heart disease
- Gallbladder problems
- Certain types of cancer (breast, uterine, colon)
- Digestive disorders (e.g., gastroesophageal reflux disease, or GERD)
- Breathing difficulties (e.g., sleep apnea, asthma)
- Psychological problems such as depression
- Problems with fertility and pregnancy
- Urinary Incontinence
Risks to psychological and social well-being
- Negative self-image
- Social isolation
Difficulties with day-to-day living
- Normal tasks become harder when you are obese, as movement is more difficult
- You tend to tire more quickly and you find yourself short of breath
- Public transport seats, telephone booths, and cars may be too small for you
- You may find it difficult to maintain personal hygiene
Dieting, exercise, and medication have long been regarded as the conventional methods to achieve weight loss. Sometimes, these efforts are successful in the short term. However, for people who are morbidly obese, the results rarely last. For many, this can translate into what's called the "yo-yo syndrome," where patients continually gain and lose weight with the possibility of serious psychological and health consequences.
Recent research reveals that conventional methods of weight loss generally fail to produce permanent weight loss. Several studies have shown that patients on diets, exercise programs, or medication are able to lose approximately 10% of their body weight but tend to regain two-thirds of it within one year, and almost all of it within five years**. Another study found that less than 5% of patients in weight loss programs were able to maintain their reduced weight after five years*.
Surgical Treatment options
Click on the links below to find out more.
:: Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding
:: Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass
:: Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy
** American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) / American
College of Endocrinology (ACE) Statement on the Prevention, Diagnosis, and
Treatment of Obesity (1998 Revision). AACE/ACE Obesity Task Force. Endocr
Pract. 1998; Vol. 4 No. 5: 297-330.
* Kramer FM et al. Long-term follow-up of behavioral treatment for obesity:
patterns of weight regain among men and women. Int J Obes 1989; 13:123-136.
# SAGES/ASBS Guidelines for Laparoscopic and Conventional Surgical Treatment
of Morbid Obesity. American Society for Bariatric Surgery. www.asbs.org/html/guidelines.html